Inflation, Consumer Prices

February 18, 2021

We discuss below the efficacy of the various policy measures to check demand-pull inflation which is caused by excess aggregate demand. Thus, inflationary expectations raise the pressure on prices and in this way inflation feeds on itself. Further, the rise in prices and the cost of living under the influence of rising aggregate demand prompts the workers and their unions to demand higher wages to compensate them for the rise in the prices. In order to protect themselves from the fall in the purchasing power of money in the future, they try to spend money now. Businessmen too increase their purchases of capital goods and build up larger than normal inventories if they anticipate rise in prices. For illustration, take the case of workers who enter into contract with their employer at an agreed wage rate of Rs. 5000 per month for the period, say 5 years.

India Inflation Rate

Thirdly, when the stock market prices are rising and aggregate demand is quite high, the corporate sector is able to raise funds itself more easily from the capital market. This will also offset the impact of tight monetary policy of the RBI to control inflation. In the opinion of many economists, the expansion in aggregate expenditure caused by fiscal deficit leads to the excess aggregate demand and inflationary pressures in the economy, especially when aggregate supply of output is inelastic. , inflation occurs due to the emergence of excess demand for goods and services relative to their supply of output at the prevailing prices. Various fiscal and monetary measures can be adopted to check this inflation.

Cepr Policy Research

This leads to the increase in aggregate demand or expenditure on goods and services which, k remaining constant, will lead to the increase in nominal national income . They further argue that the real national income or aggregate output (i.e., Y in the demand for money function stated above) remains stable at full-employment level in the long run due to the flexibility of wages. where Ms stands for quantity of money and P for the price level, Therefore, Ms/P represents real cash balances. Y stands for national income and k for the ratio of income which people want to keep in cash balances. Hence kPY represents demand for cash balances (i.e., demand for money), AD represents aggregate demand for or aggregate expenditure on goods and services which is composed of consumption demand and investment demand .

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The Inflation Rate Term Explained

It creates a demand-supply gap with higher demand and less flexible supply, which results in higher prices. Inflation is measured in a variety of ways depending upon the types of goods and services considered and is the opposite of deflation which indicates a general decline occurring in prices for goods and services when the inflation rate falls below 0%. Inflation can be contrasted with deflation, which occurs when the purchasing power of money increases and prices decline. “The sharp reversal in the CPI inflation trajectory to 5.03% in Feb 2021 from 4.06% in the previous month reflects the potential inflationary pressures in the economy. From a monetary policy perspective, the rising inflationary risks although still nascent could trigger some caution from the RBI. Annual retail inflation rose 5.03% in February, up from 4.06% in January, data released by the Ministry of Statistics showed on Friday.

Historically, if inflation climbs toward 3% the FED gets worried and this generally results in raising the FED funds rate. If inflation falls below 1% it sparks deflationary fears and quantitative easing. Available via annual subscription to one or more of CEIC’s global and premium databases. The Site or the Products may contain hyperlinks to websites operated by parties other than IMA, which may not have been screened or reviewed by IMA and which may contain inaccurate, inappropriate or offensive material, products or services. We do not control such websites, and We assume no responsibility or liability regarding the accuracy, reliability, legality or decency of such third-party websites, content, products or services.

Consumer Price Index, 1913

Instead, what did the RBI -MPC do in the last policy review on October 9? It is the job of the Reserve Bank of India, assigned to it by Parliament, to target inflation at four per cent with plus or minus tolerance of another two percentage points. The Monetary Policy Committee, comprising RBI Governor, financial economists and government nominees, is obliged to review every two months to fix a policy interest rate, known as the REPO rate, in a manner that targets CPI inflation at four per cent.

The normal growth cycles accompanied with the international price pressures has several times being characterized by domestic uncertainties. To what extent price level increases depends upon the elasticity of supply or aggregate output in the short run. 22A.4 that effect of increase in money supply from M0 to M1 and resultant increase in aggregate demand curve for goods and services from AD0 to AD1 is split up into the rise in price level and the increase in real income or aggregate output .


The Good Quantitative Easing by the central banks with the effect of an increased money supply in an economy often helps to increase or moderate inflationary targets. There is a puzzle formation between low-rate inflation and a high growth of money supply. When the current rate of inflation is low, a high worth of money supply warrants the tightening of liquidity and an increased interest rate for a moderate aggregate demand and the avoidance of any potential problems. Further, in case of a low output a tightened monetary policy would affect the production in a much more severe manner.

The first and foremost bottlenecks faced by the developing countries relate to agriculture and they prevent supply of food grains to increase adequately. Elaborating on this, Case and Fair write, “Expectations can lead to an inertia that makes it difficult to stop an inflationary spiral. Note that India Inflation Rate not only there is shifting upward of short-run average supply curve to restore previous level of real wage rate but also real GDP has returned to potential or full-employment GDP level Y. Now, this imbalance between aggregate demand and supply may be the result of more than one force at work.

India’s Retail Inflation Eases In December, Within Rbi Target

As a result of this inflation their rewards for work or other factor services go below what is justified by the real productivity of their work or other factor services. This causes misallocation of labour and other factors which create economic inefficiency and unnecessary loss of output. For example, they have to go to banks more often to withdraw their money holdings. They use up their shoes and such other things in going to banks too often and also spend a good deal of their valuable time. In times of inflation, in their bid to economies the use of currency, the business firms also spend some resources for proper management of their cash funds.

For example, it includes cotton prices for raw cotton, cotton yarn, cotton gray goods, and cotton clothing. Although many countries and organizations use WPI, many other countries, including the U.S., use a similar variant called theproducer price index . With more money available to individuals, positive consumer sentiment leads to higher spending, and this increased demand pulls prices higher.

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Is inflation good for retail?

The presence of inflation in the retail market encourages retailers towards strategies that emphasise innovations to increase productivity of all their assets. With higher inflation, price competition is stronger so there is greater need for productivity improvement to maintain selling prices.

These debates created a large body of research on inflation, especially in the US. One year after George Floyd was murdered, America has changed, and so has the asset-management industry. Investors now have more, and more nuanced, ways to put their money to work in ways that support racial justice. The yellow long term trend line indicates we had been in a downtrend since the peak in 1990. The key point came in June of 2004 when the index crossed above the yellow line confirming the end of the inflation downtrend. So although the short-term downtrend ended in August 2002 the long-term disinflationary trend ended in June of 2004.

Explaining The World Through Macroeconomic Analysis

This is a relatively rare event, the last time that happened on an Annual Basis was in 1955, although we have had deflation for a single month on a more regular basis . According to the Ministry, last month’s rise in WPI inflation rate was slower on a year-on-year margin of safety ratio formula basis. Besides core inflation, the consumer price index—which encompasses all retail prices—at 6.1% is still above the RBI’s target of 4%. Real income, also known as real wage, is how much money an individual or entity makes after accounting for inflation.

India Inflation Rate

To implement this approach for India, we examine the inflation rate in the wholesale price index . Given that WPI inflation is highly disaggregated by sector, we can compute a historical series for median inflation. A good or a bad harvest is not evidence of a rise in general inflation pressures, nor even of a fall, it’s just a change in the relative price of food. Sure, this is important to all sorts of people and for all sorts of reasons. 2014 began with 1.58% annual inflation in January rising to 2.13%% in May. Although monthly inflation for the first two months was 0.37% each, at 0.64% March had almost as much inflation as the previous two months combined and settling back down to 0.33% in April and 0.35% in May.

Data Bulletin

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